Sunday, 4 June 2017

International election observer

    This weekend I am serving as part of an international election observer delegation working with the Mexican civil society organization “Ni un fraude más". We are investigating electoral processes in the State of Mexico as it undergoes an important gubernatorial election. Here is information in español about our mission, and the institutional and democratic crisis that Mexico faces.

Friday, 28 April 2017

New Op-Ed on Whiteness & the U.S. Political Scene

See Counterpunch for a new op-ed that I have co-authored : "The US Political Scene: Whiteness and the Legitimacy Crisis of Global Capitalism".  It also appears here in Spanish and here in French.

Saturday, 1 April 2017

The Caribbean cruise ship business and the emergence of a transnational capitalist class

The Journal of World-Systems Research published today a new peer-reviewed journal article that I have authored. 

Through the context of the Caribbean region, this article examines the globalizing cruise ship business and its changing strategies for the exploitation of labor and local communities. You can read the article here.

Friday, 31 March 2017

My new piece in Latin American Perspectives

The journal Latin American Perspectives has published my lengthy review of Caribbeanist Hilbourne Watson's excellent new monograph Globalization, Sovereignty and Citizenship in the Caribbean (published with the University of the West Indies Press).

The review also includes some thoughts on the contributions 
to the volume by other well-known Caribbean political economists, such as Alex Dupuy, Linden Lewis, and Anton L. Allahar. You can read the entire review here.  

Thursday, 23 March 2017

Interview on The Real News

I was interviewed today by The Real News Network on current events in Haiti and in relation to my earlier research on paramilitarism in the context of economic restructuring, social conflict, and political tensions in the country.

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Saturday, 25 February 2017

Haïti : le capitalisme des paramilitaires

La revue Période a publié mon nouvel article en français «Haïti : le capitalisme des paramilitaires». Avec une approche portant sur l'économie politique globale, cet article donne un aperçu et une mise à jour des informations contenues dans mon livre datant de 2012. Une version mise à jour et élargie est publiée dans América Latina en movimiento.

Wednesday, 25 January 2017

Upcoming talk at Cornell University

I will be giving a talk at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York on Thursday, March 9, 4:30 pm, Founders Room, Anabel Taylor Hall, Cornell University. The talk is co-sponsored by CUSLAR (the Committee on U.S.-Latin American Relations). The talk, titled "The Caribbean in the vortex of global capitalism" will be connected to a chapter in my forthcoming book The Caribbean and Global Capitalism.

Wednesday, 11 January 2017

Review in Journal of Asia Pacific Economy

The Journal of Asia Pacific Economy has published a review (by Oliver Turner) of my edited volume "Globalization and Transnational Capitalism in Asia and Oceania" (Routledge, 2015). You can read the entire review here.

Tuesday, 3 January 2017

A reply to the reviews of my 2012 book

        My 2012 book "Paramilitarism and the Assault on Democracy in Haiti" provided a detailed documentation and investigation of paramilitarism in Haiti in the lead up to and following the 2004 coup d'état.   It looked at the manner in which paramilitary groups (and those facilitating them) altered from the Duvlierist era up through the early twenty first century, ensuring a reproduction of the coercive paramilitary apparatus. Below I want to briefly address the reviews that the book has received.

Monday, 26 September 2016

Call for Papers: Paramilitarism in Global Perspective

See below the CFP for a new edited volume that I am co-editting:

The Political Violence of Capital: Paramilitary Formations
In Global Perspective

Editors: Jasmin Hristov, Jeb Sprague-Silgado and Aaron Tauss

         We are seeking proposals /abstracts of 500 words maximum for chapter contributions to the volume. We encourage submissions of proposals for works that address paramilitary violence in any part of the world. The deadline for submitting a proposal is December 1, 2016. Please include your full name, institutional affiliation, and current position in the same Word document as the abstract. Acceptance notification will be sent out by December 15. If accepted, contributors will be given a general list of guiding questions that should be addressed in their work and completed chapters would be due by March 15, 2017. 
     Please insert in the subject line of your email: “paramilitary proposal” and send your document as an attachment to: jasminmanaus[at]gmai[dot]com
      Paramilitary violence is a specific type of violence exercised by non-state actors and/or state agents operating outside the boundaries of legality, on behalf of economically and politically powerful social forces. Its objectives typically revolve around attacking social movements, activists, Leftist politicians and other individuals or groups who challenge the established social order, as well as facilitating land acquisition through the forced displacement of civilians from land of strategic economic importance. Paramilitary groups may also perform other functions such as ‘social cleansing’, and ‘protection’ of private property. Despite its anti-democratic character, over the past decades paramilitarism has evolved as a revamped strategy pursued by dominant groups and elites operating through different state apparatuses primarily in developing countries. Today paramilitary formations are present in varying degrees across the Americas and other areas worldwide. A central characteristic common to all is their alliance with capital and, frequently, a mutually supportive relationship with the state’s coercive apparatus and possibly other state institutions, ranging from complicity to active collaboration. In nations where economic elites are contesting reformist, nationalist, or Left-oriented governments, paramilitary groups have been used to destabilize the regime and undermine its popular support. As is well documented, paramilitary actors have been responsible for some of the most horrifying human rights violations and yet this type of violence is very poorly understood and investigated. In part, this has to do with the fact that paramilitaries are often categorized as “organized crime” which strips the political motivations and social consequences of their actions. 
     This edited volume examines the pervasive and persistent but little understood phenomenon of paramilitarism and its varying expressions throughout the world. Our aim is to reveal some of the most common features that characterize paramilitary groups such as: a)  use of violence to facilitate the accumulation of capital accumulation by transnational corporations and local companies integrated within the global  economy; b) engagement in human rights violations and illegal activities; c) attacks against social movements, Leftist organizations or individuals, and poor rural or urban communities; d)  collaboration with sectors of national and/or transnational state forces, e)  ‘security’ as an ideological cover, and f) a trend towards flexibilization and decentralization of forces. The objective is to compile empirically-oriented investigations that enable us to theorize and understand the role of paramilitaries in the processes of capitalist globalization and the increasing exacerbation of social inequalities. We are especially interested in demonstrating that although frequently the lines between paramilitarism and organized crime are blurry and fluid, paramilitary violence has comparatively much deeper implications and hence cannot simply be reduced to criminal activities. We are also open to exploring different possible configurations in the relationship between paramilitary groups, rival political factions, organized crime, and other actors. 


Monday, 15 August 2016


A Mandarin Chinese version of my forthcoming article "Transnational capitalist class and relations of production in Asia and Oceania" is now published by the Taiwan/Hong Kong/mainland China based alternative media website Ground Breaking 破土 . It can be read here.    

Friday, 6 May 2016

New article with NACLA on the Dominican Republic

I have a new short article published with NACLA, titled "Polyarchy in the Dominican Republic: The Elite Versus the Elite". Read it here. I was also  interviewed on this topic on Latin Pulse.  An expanded version of the article in español appears in the Dominican media-worker cooperative El Grillo.

Monday, 2 May 2016

Review of 2015 edited volume with Routledge: Globalization and Transnational Capitalism in Asia and Oceania

       The Journal of World-Systems Research has published an excellent review by graduate student David Feldman of my 2015 edited volume (with Routledge) titled Globalization and Transnational Capitalism in Asia and Oceania.  Chapters in the book examined the shifting relations of production and productive forces under global capitalism through the context of East Asia, South Asia, and Oceania. It was made up of chapters submitted from the third biennial NCSGC conference in Brisbane, Australia in 2013.
         Feldman provides critical insights into the particularities of the findings in the chapters (and on differences between the authors' approaches); focusing in on the contradictions inherent in the growth of global capitalist relations.  He concludes by making a vital point (and criticism, as only two chapters dealt with this) that "gendered aspects of class and productive relations" need to be front and center in understanding the totality of production. He observes that: "transnational capital's lack of attention to the social reproduction of an ever-increasing number of strata in global society constitutes one of the key contradictions of the accumulation of capital today." Read the entire review here.


Wednesday, 20 April 2016

New article published in the peer reviewed journal Caribbean Studies

Click here for a PDF of my new article published in the scholarly journal Caribbean Studies.  This is an altered version of one chapter in my recently completed Ph.D. dissertation: The Caribbean and Global Capitalism.  The article is titled: "From International to Transnational Mining: The Industry's Shifting Political Economy and the Caribbean". The English, Spanish, and French versions of the abstract are below. Click here for a URL link to the journal.

Thursday, 21 January 2016

New review of my 2012 book

Matthew Davidson, at the University of Miami, has written an excellent review of my 2012 book. You can read it here, on the website: Haiti: Then and Now.  

Thursday, 22 October 2015

Symposium on Paramilitarism in the Modern Americas, November 12-13

See below, for information on an upcoming symposium at the University of Arizona, where I will be presenting updated material related to my 2012 book and put forward a theoretical approach for understanding the "flexibilization" of paramilitarism in the context of global economic restructuring.

Tuesday, 2 June 2015

NEW BOOK: Globalization and Transnational Capitalism in Asia and Oceania

   Please ask your local librarian to order a copy of the new volume that I have published with Routledge.   See here for a PDF of my introductory chapter: "Global capitalism and transnational class formation in Asia and Oceania." 

The book gathers together papers presented at the second biennial conference of the Network for Critical Studies of Global Capitalism which took place at Griffith University in Brisbane, Australia in July of 2013.

Wednesday, 11 March 2015

Upcoming talk at CSULB

This March 23rd I will be giving a few talks on the Caribbean's shifting political economy.  More specifically I will look at the restructuring of the cruise ship, remittance, mining, and export processing industries and how social groups have been caught up in the changes taking place. The talks will be hosted by the International Studies Program at California State University of Long Beach. 

Friday, 19 December 2014

New Op-Ed in teleSUR: Jamaica & the Politics of Debt Trap

I have published here in teleSUR a new piece titled "Jamaica and the Politics of Debt Trap" that I wrote while conducting research in Kingston, Jamaica. A Spanish version of the article is available here

Tuesday, 16 December 2014

Book Reviews of my 2012 book

York University Associate Professor Justin Podur has published a review of my 2012 book in the Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History. Read the review here.  Podur is also the author of the book Haiti's New Dictatorship (Pluto Press, 2012).

Professor Valerie Kaussen (author of Migrant Revolutions: Haitian Literature, Globalization, and U.S. Imperialism) has published a review of my 2012 book in the oldest scholarly journal on the Caribbean: the New West Indian Guide. You can read the entire review here.

Wednesday, 13 August 2014

A Review of Leo Panitch & Sam Gindin's book on the Political Economy of U.S. Empire

See here for a new piece that I have published in the journal Critical Sociology reviewing Leo Panitch and Sam Gindin's book The Making of Global Capitalism:  The Political Economy of American Empire (2012, Verso).

Saturday, 5 July 2014

Race & Class review by Boaz Anglade

A review of my book Paramilitarism and the assault on democracy in Haiti (2012, Monthly Review Press) has been published by Haitian scholar Boaz Anglade in the journal Race & Class.  The review can be read here.

Thursday, 17 April 2014

Cruise Ships and Global Capitalism: The Industry's Shifting Political Economy

I published a short piece here  titled "Cruise Ships and Global Capitalism" which will be part of a forthcoming journal article and a chapter in my  forthcoming dissertation that looks at the sociological and political economy dynamics of the Caribbean's insertion into global capitalism.

Thursday, 13 March 2014

Interview with Grazia Ietto-Gillies published in the journal Critical Perspectives on International Business

Published in the new special 10th anniversary issue of the journal Critical Perspectives on International Business is an interview that I conducted with political economist Grazia Ietto-Gillies. She is emeritus professor of applied economics at London South Bank University in the UK and the author of numerous works on transnational corporations (including Transnational Corporations and International Production: Concepts, Theories and Effects, which was just published in its second edition). 
My interview with her can be read here.

Wednesday, 4 December 2013

Co-authored letter published in the Guardian

Poll on deaths in Iraq ignored by British media
In May 2013 the reputable polling company ComRes asked a representative sample of the British public the following question: "How many Iraqis, both combatants and civilians, do you think have died as a consequence of the war that began in Iraq in 2003?"
According to 59% of the respondents, fewer than 10,000 Iraqis died as a result of the war. The results are especially shocking because respondents were not asked to limit their estimates to Iraqi civilians or to deaths caused directly by violence.
The latest scientific estimate of the death toll from the war is almost 500,000. This was published in PLOS Medicine. Two previous studies, also published in peer-reviewed scientific journalssuggest the death toll may possibly have been closer to a million. Only 6% of the respondents in the ComRes poll estimated more than 500,000 Iraqi deaths. Only 0.3% said they didn't know or declined to give an estimate.
The ComRes poll is powerful evidence that the media misled the public about the consequences of the war. The evidence is bolstered by the way the poll was ignored by the British media. Using Lexis-Nexis, the only prominent piece we could find about the poll in the British press was an op-ed by Ian Sinclair in the Morning Star, a small leftwing newspaper.
Anyone tempted to support military intervention anywhere in the world should know how effectively the most catastrophic human costs of war can be hidden from the public.
Joe Emersberger, Keane Bhatt, Noam Chomsky, David Cromwell, David Edwards, Peter Hallward, Jeb Sprague, Daniel Thornton

Tuesday, 15 October 2013

Book reviewed in Journal of Labor & Society

My book with Monthly Review Press was reviewed by Matthew J. Smith, senior lecturer in the Department of History and Archeology at the University of West Indies, Mona, in Jamaica, author of Red and Black in Haiti: Radicalism, Conflict, and Political Change, 1934-1957.  You can read the review here.

Saturday, 10 August 2013

Island of Hispaniola: Coalitions and cross-border solidarity

I published a new op-ed on the Pambazuka Website (with an updated/corrected version published in the hardcopy of CounterPunch Magazine). The article provides some brief remarks and ideas on the political situation and social conflict in the Dominican Republic and Haiti, and the connection between the two. A version in español is published on the Rebelión website and a Français verison is published in L'Aut'Journal (Haiti Liberte weekly newspaper version pasted below). 

Tuesday, 30 July 2013

The Savage Wars of the Capitalist Peace: The New Geoeconomics & the Rise of China

Adelaide University's Dr. Kanishka Jayasuriya gives a keynote talk "The Savage Wars of the Capitalist Peace: The New Geoeconomics & the Rise of China". In the context of political science literature on "rising powers", he examines the weaknesses of nation-state centrism and mainstream thinking on the "rise of china", and how this ignores the more nuanced shifting socio-economic relations occurring through global capitalism and how this relates to China. To discuss this he looks in particular at the 'Asian Century White Paper Report' commissioned by the Australian government of former Prime Minister Julia Gillard. I recorded this talk in June of 2013 at the "Global Capitalism in Asia and Oceania conference" at Griffith University in Brisbane. This was the 2nd conference of the Network for Critical Studies of Global Capitalism (NCSGC). For more information see:

Crisis, the Emerging New Stage of Capitalism, and the Need of a Transnational Class Strategy for Social Emancipation

Above is a talk and brief interview with Dr. George Liodakis that I recorded in September of 2011 at the first conference of Network for Critical Studies of Global Capitalism (NCSGC) in Prague, Czech Republic. His paper was titled "Crisis, the Emerging New Stage of Capitalism, and the Need of a Transnational Class Strategy for Social Emancipation." Professor Liodakis teaches at the Technical University of Crete, Greece. Among many other publications, he is the author of the book: "Totalitarian Capitalism and Beyond" (London: Ashgate, 2010).

Thursday, 18 July 2013

The Political Economy Approach Versus the Network Theory Approach to Understanding Global Capitalism

Dr. Jerry Harris, political economist at DeVry University in Chicago,IL, gives a talk on transnational class formation and global capitalism. He looks in particular at the differences between the political economist approach to this topic and how network theory sociologists have looked at global capitalism and the transnational capitalist class. I recorded this talk in June of 2013 at the "Global Capitalism in Asia and Oceania conference" at Griffith University in Brisbane. This was the 2nd conference of the Network for Critical Studies of Global Capitalism (NCSGC). For more information see:

Sunday, 7 July 2013

China's Integration into Global Capitalism

Below is a video I recorded (apologies for the bad angles, as I have not figured out on my computer yet how to adjust these) of Dr. Jerry Harris, a political economist at DeVry University in Chicago. Here he discusses the integration of China into global capitalism and in particular the transnational economic and class dynamics of this process. This talk was given in June of 2013 at the "Global Capitalism in Asia and Oceania conference" at Griffith University in Brisbane. Most of the Q&A's are also included toward the end of the video. This talk was given at the 2nd conference of the Network for Critical Studies of Global Capitalism (NCSGC). The conference was held at Griffith University in Brisbane, Australia, and focused on "Global Capitalism in Asia and Oceania". For more information see:

Thursday, 4 July 2013

Finance Capital and Climate Change: The Role of Climate Interested Investors

         Below is a video I recorded of Griffith University Sociologists Dr. Georgina Murray and Dr. David Peetz examining if it is possible within the logic of finance capital to have some groups or sub-class of the transnational capitalist class that can be focused toward the longer-term, whereas the great drive in financialization over recent decades has been toward increasing emphasis on short-termism (I.E. short term profits). The research here points to the contradictions of global capitalism, emphasizing the detrimental impact it is having upon our planet.

         Once the main lecture in the video begins (after the intro) at around 2 minutes and 33 seconds, you will need to turn the volume up significantly. This talk was given in June of 2013 at the "Global Capitalism in Asia and Oceania conference" at Griffith University in Brisbane. This was the 2nd conference of the Network for Critical Studies of Global Capitalism (NCSGC). For more information see:

Saturday, 1 June 2013

Upcoming talks in June & August

If you plan to be at any of the below events or will be in the area, I've listed below the upcoming talks I have planned.

* On Thursday, June 7, at 2:45 in the St. Andrews room at the Caribbean Studies Association (CSA) conference on the Caribbean island of Grenada I will be giving a talk on new research I have been doing. The talk is titled: "An Emergent Cornerstone of Global Capitalism in the Caribbean: A Case Study on Transnational Mining in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Jamaica." That same day at 6:30 Dr. Mark Schuller (author of the new book Killing with Kindness: Haiti, International Aid, and NGOs (Rutgers Press, 2012)) will be presenting my book Paramilitarism and the Assault on Democracy in Haiti (Monthly Review, 2012) at the conference's author celebration meeting.

* In mid-June I will be giving a talk in Santiago, Dominican Republic, discussing my book with local grassroots organizations and educators. For various reasons the meeting is invite only. If you are interested in attending email me at: jhsprague[at]
* On Saturday, June 29, I will be giving a talk titled "Theorizing transnational class relations" at the Global Capitalism in Asia and Oceania conference that is taking place at Griffith University in Brisbane, Australia, and is being organized by the Network for Critical Studies of Global Capitalism. I will be giving my talk on a panel with Dr. Jerry Harris (author of The Dialectics of Globalization: Economic and Political Conflict in a Transnational World (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008))
* On Sunday, August 11, I will be giving a talk titled "Transnational Capitalism, Class, and the Caribbean Context” at the American Sociological Association that is being held in New York City.

Tuesday, 2 April 2013

New reviews of my book by Hyppolite Pierre and Bruce Poinsette

Read a new review here of my book by Hyppolite Pierre. He is a Political Science Adjunct Faculty at the American Military University and the author of Haiti, Rising Flames from Burning Ashes: Haiti the Phoenix.

Also read a review/interview here on my book by Bruce Poinsette of The Skanner News.

Tuesday, 5 March 2013

Article in ¡Presente!

The new issue of ¡Presente!, the newspaper of the movement to close the School of the Americas (SOA), includes an abridged version of my recent article on Haiti's ex-army. The article can be read here.

Friday, 1 February 2013

CFP: Global Capitalism in Asia & Oceania.

I am a co-organizer for this forthcoming conference at Griffith University in Brisbane Australia. Please see the CFP below.  This is the 3rd biennial conference of the network for critical studies of global capitalism (NCSGC).

Outside of Asia, much is made of ‘the Asian Century’, the ‘rise of Asia’, the economic potential of Asian markets, regional trade agreements with Asia, and building ‘Asia- relevant’ capabilities to support all these. Such instrumental views are shaping the ideological landscape of many parts of the ‘West’.
For those from within and outside Asia who are interested in critical studies of global capitalism other topics are much more pressing. These include the different models and manifestations of global capitalism that are being adopted across Asia, as well as the links between such models and ongoing political developments in the region.
Questions arise about the implications of newly energized “Asian capitalism” for current economic and social relationships— about current forms of economic division and exploitation, increasing social polarization and state based authoritarianism. Related questions also come up about oppositional activist practices that are arising and contemporary modes of policing such dissent.
The purpose of this conference is to focus critical studies of global capitalism on Asia, Australia, and the Oceania region, to provide opportunities for interested scholars and activists to explore related issues.
  • The transnational capitalist class in Asia, Australia, and Oceania.
  • The so-called Asian century; potential winners and losers.
  • Diverse forms of neo-liberalism in Asia.
  • Transnational capital and the state.
  • State repression and militarisation.
  • Financialisation and tax havens.
  • The political economies of international education
  • Global corporate networks intersecting with Asia and Australia.
  • Capitalism, class and power relations in these regions.
  • Workers in the Asia and global assembly lines.
  • Social and political movements, protest and activisms.ops Topics that we invite abstract/paper submissions for:
Submit Abstracts to: Jerry Harris, or Anthony van Fossen,
(after 30th April) Final deadline 30th May, 2013
Submit Papers to: Jane Kenway, Deadline 30th May
Papers: Circulated with workshop group
Aim: Publication
Registration Online - Costs: $250 waged and $125 unwaged and students.
Sponsors: Griffith University’s Centre for Work, Organisation and Well Being;
School of Humanities; and Arts, Education & Law Group.
Venue: Ship Inn, Griffith University, South Bank, Brisbane, Australia
Accommodation: South Bank hotels
Conference Info: http//
Conference Organizing Committee: William I. Robinson, Jeb Sprague,
(Univ. California Santa Barbara), Jason Struna (Univ. Calif. Riverside),
Jerry Harris (DeVry University), Leslie Sklair (LSE), William K. Carroll (University of Victoria) Jane Kenway (Monash University), Anthony van Fossen, David Peetz & Georgina Murray (Griffith University) 

Thursday, 24 January 2013

Global Capitalism and “North-South” Unevenness

I have a new journal article (co-authored with scholars from the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and from the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa) published in the journal Perspectives on Global Development and Technology. We examine quantitatively the ranking, statistical correlations, and profits from the Forbes’ Worldwide List of 2000 Top Firms, arrive at some conclusions, and suggest a valuable approach for understanding and analyzing this data. You can read the article here.

Sunday, 20 January 2013

Paramilitarism in Haiti: A Photo Montage

     Below are photos to accompany my book Paramilitarism and the Assault on Democracy in Haiti (Monthly Review Press, 2012). These photos were either: (a) provided to me with permission to use by the photographer, (b) photos that I took, or (c) they have been posted through Creative Commons (CC) which was especially necessary with the older historical periods covered.
     These images focus our attention on paramilitary organizations and their facilitators: various state, military, and intelligence apparatuses, officials, and elite networks. As paramilitary groups and their backers have gained impunity time and again, it is necessary to document all of this for the historical record, which I have tried to do in my recently published book. Through these photos, we are forced to recognize that the victims of paramilitary violence in Haiti are overwhelmingly from the country's lower-income communities and grassroots pro-democracy movement.
     In addition to these photographs, I suggest looking over the many excellent documentaries, books, and other sources that provide a compelling record of contemporary paramilitary violence in Haiti and the region. 

     I have put this photo montage together from a powerpoint that I used a few months back during various presentations I gave on the book. I hope readers of the book will find this useful, as well as the university classes that I know have been assigned to read it. This photo montage is a work in progress. 

Tuesday, 11 December 2012

Interview on Radio Kajou (Florida) & CKCU fm (Ottawa)

I was interviewed for around 45 minutes on my new book by Haitian writer and activist Jean Saint-Vil on Radio Kajou (based out of south Florida) & CKCU fm (based in Ottawa, Canada) on December 9. The discussion was partially translated into haitian kreyol. You can listen to the talk here, but will only be available for the next three weeks.

Monday, 10 December 2012

Rendez-vous Haitien

Nan emisyon sa a Jafrikayiti (Jean St Vil) chita pale ak otE Jeb Sprague ki pibliye "Paramilitarism and the Assault on Democracy in Haiti", yon liv ki bay anpil detay sou kanpay militE ki makonnen ak koudeta 29 fevriye 2004 la. Sprague te pale ak alatEt mEsenE yo, Louis Jodel Chamblain, Judy C. Roy, ak anpil plis. Li te resevwa plizyE dokiman klasifye nan men gouvEnman Meriken ki ede li konprann pi byen nan ki kondisyon mEsenE yo t ap opere sou teritwa Dominiken depi anvan Aristide te prete sEman kom Prezidan nan ane 2001.

Saturday, 8 December 2012